Causes of intellectual awakening:
- State formation and the rigidity of the Vedic religion constrained the liberty of thought and action. A revolt against religious practice of following dogmas found its articulation in heterodox sects.
- As the Vedic religion had not yet permeated into the society, people did not find it difficult to follow the newly emerging religious sects.
- With urbanization and expansion of trade, new classes of merchants and bankers such as sethis sought higher social status appropriate to their economic status.
- The grievance of Kshatriyas was that they were denied a staged life of ashramas, a privilege permitted only to Brahmins in the Vedic texts.
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