Endocrine Glands

 Endocrine glands: harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. … Read more

Structure Of Flower And Reproduction Process

 Structure of flower and reproduction process The Female Reproductive Organ: The Carpel The female parts of a flower consist of an ovary, which contains one or more ovules, a style and the stigma. The ovary is at the base of the flower.  From the ovary, extends a tubular structure called the style and … Read more


 Nutrition Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials – food – required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods. Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:  Carbohydrates They provide us … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

 Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

Respiratory Quotient

 Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, … Read more

Types Of Asexual Reproduction

 Types of Asexual Reproduction Spores Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores. Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release … Read more

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

 Factors affecting photosynthesis There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis and several corollary factors. The three main are:   Light irradiance and wavelength Carbon dioxide concentration Temperature. Total photosynthesis is limited by a range of environmental factors. These include the amount of light available, the amount of leaf area a plant has to … Read more


 Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

Diseases Communicable Diseases And Epidemic Diseases

 Diseases – Communicable diseases, Endemic diseases Top 10 Causes of Death (Source: WHO World Health Statistics 2012) Ischemic heart disease 12 % Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11% Stroke 9% Diarrheal disease 6% Lower respiratory infections 5% Preterm birth complications 4% Tuberculosis 3% Self-inflicted injuries 3% Falls 3% Road injuries 2% Communicable diseases Communicable … Read more

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