Isothermal Lines

Isothermal Lines The “isothermal process”, which is thermodynamic process in which the temperature of a system remains constant. The transfer of heat into or out of the system happens so slowly that thermal equilibrium is maintained. “Thermal” is a term that describes the heat of a system. “Iso” means “equal”, so “isothermal” means “equal heat”, … Read more

Housing in India

Housing in India Issues related to housing sector in India Un-planned growth of settlements  A number of housing clusters have mushroomed in and around various metropolitan centres in haphazard and unplanned manner, without a proper layout and devoid of service lines and other essential facilities. These unauthorized developments are encroachments on land parcels belonging to … Read more

Spherical Coordinates and Projections,Time

Spherical Coordinates and Projections,Time Spherical coordinates can be a little challenging to understand at first. Spherical coordinates determine the position of a point in three-dimensional space based on the distance ρ from the origin and two angles θ and ϕ. If one is familiar with polar coordinates, then the angle θ isn’t too difficult to … Read more


Grassland Grassland, area in which the vegetation is dominated by a nearly continuous cover of grasses. Grasslands occur in environments conducive to the growth of this plant cover but not to that of taller plants, particularly trees and shrubs. The factors preventing establishment of such taller, woody vegetation are varied. Grasslands are one of the … Read more


Mountains Mountain, landform that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning. Very rarely do mountains occur individually. In most cases, they are found in elongated ranges or … Read more

Broad Physical Feature

 Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers:-   Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth. Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is … Read more

Solar Energy

 Solar Energy : Source, Solar heating devices, solar cooker solar cell   Sunlight is Earth’s most abundant energy source and is delivered free of charge. Indeed, the energy from sunlight reaching the land surface of the earth  is thousands of times greater than the world’s current total annual consumption of energy. Yet harnessing sunlight’s energy … Read more

El Nino

 El Nino El Niño is the name given to the occasional development of warm ocean surface waters along the coast of Ecuador and Peru. When this warming occurs the usual upwelling of cold, nutrient rich deep ocean water is significantly reduced. El Niño normally occurs around Christmas and usually lasts for a few weeks to a few … Read more

Oceanic Resources Of India And Their Potential

 Oceanic resources of India and their potential Oceans are the world’s single largest ecosystem, covering nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface, thereby providing a massive arena for emerging complex and interconnected development issues such as climate change, livelihoods, commerce, and security. According to estimates by the Global Ocean Commission, ocean resources contribute five … Read more

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