Issues and Challenges. Programmes and policies for the welfare of differently-abled persons, women and children and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of the State.in Himachal Pradesh
Schemes Relating to Children
Integrated Child Development Services Scheme
Under this scheme department is providing nutrition to the pregnant, Lactating mothers, adolescent girls and children of 6 month to 6 year. Pre School Education is being provided to the children of age group of 3 to 6 years. Objective of the schemes are:
- Nutrition and Health Education
- Supplementary nutrition
- Health Check up
- Pre School Education
- Referral Services
Child/Women Related Acts
- Child Marriage Prohibition Act 2006.
- Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act.2005.
- Protection of Children from Sexual Offence Act. 2012 (POCSO)
- Prevention of Sexual Harassment of women at work places 2013
- Juvenile Justice Act. 2006
- Himachal Pradesh Marriage Registration Act. 1996.
Welfare Schemes for Empowerment of Women in Himachal Pradesh
Reservation in Political Bodies
Women of Himachal have been provided with 50% reservation in the political bodies like Panchayati Raj institutions and Urban Local Bodies in the State. This has definitely helped the women to come forward and explore themselves.
Beti Hai Anmol Yojana
Under this Yojana, for all the families lying below the poverty line in Himachal and having one or two girls, a sum of Rs. 5100 will be deposited in the name of girls at the time of their birth. Moreover, to help in the education of such girls, scholarship ranging from Rs. 300 to Rs. 1500 will be given to them from class I to class XII.
Mukhaya Mantri Bal Udhar Yojana
Under this Yojana, Himachal govt. Decided to provided free education, accommodation, professional guidance and several other essential facilities to the orphans whether a girl or a boy.
Mukhaya Mantri Kanyadaan Yojana
Under this Yojana, the daughters of below poverty line families or widows or destitute were given a sum of Rs. 11,001 for their marriage by Himachal govt.
Widows Pension Incremented in himachal
Earlier, the widows in Himachal were given a monthly pension of Rs. 200 which was increased to rs. 330.
Mother Teresa Asahaya Matri Sambal Yojana
under this Yojana, the women who are helpless in upbringing their children (like widows, destitute) are provided with financial assistance of Rs. 2000 per child for two children.
State policies for persons with disabilities
Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995, provides for medical facilities, education, employment, creation of barrier free environment, social security etc. The State Government is instrumental in implementing the various provisions of the Act. The Department of Social Justice & Empowerment (SJ&E) is the nodal Department for coordinating and facilitating the implementation of the Act. To give impetus to the implementation of the Act, a State Level Coordination Committee under the Chairpersonship of the Hon’ble Minister (Social Justice & Empowerment) has been constituted. This committee is being supported by the State Executive Committee to review and formulate the strategy for implementation of different provisions of the Act in coordination with different departments.
The State Policy is based on the vision of having an inclusive and non disabling society where every person with disability is mainstreamed into society. It provides a framework for the Government to create an enabling environment to achieve this. It seeks to remove barriers that prevent persons with disabilities from participating fully in society. This policy statement attempts to cover the range of barriers experienced by the persons with disabilities – public attitudes, human rights, employment and educational opportunities and provides a framework for developing strategies and action plan for removing those barriers enabling their participation in the society.
For the purpose of achieving the vision of mainstreaming the Persons with Disabilities the following components are envisaged in the Policy:
- Prevention of Disabilities
- Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities
- Enabling Environment for the Persons with Disabilities
Tribal Development Policies and Programmes in Himachal Pradesh
The founding fathers of the Indian constitution were aware of their problems. Therefore, they made special provisions for their protection and development. The main safeguards include promotion of educational and economic interests and their protection from injustices and all forms of exploitation. The constitution protects the general rights of all Indian citizens to move freely, settle anywhere and acquire property. It also permits the States to make reservation in public services in case of inadequate representation and requiring them to consider their claims in appointments to public services. The constitution provides special representation for the STs in the Lok Sabha and State legislative Assemblies till 25th January, 2010 ((Article 330, 332, and 334) and enjoins the setting up of separate departments in the States and National Commission at the Centre to promote their welfare and safeguard their interests (Art. 224, fifth and Sixth Schedules) and grant‐in‐aid to the States to meet the cost of such schemes of development as may be undertaken by them for prompting the welfare of the Schedule Tribes or raising the level of Schedule Areas (Art. 275 (1) are also guaranteed. Latter on with a view to effectively deal with the crimes against the Scheduled Tribes two special laws, viz., Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1995 and the Scheduled Castes, Schedules Tribes (prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 were enacted.
Until the Fourth Five Year Plan, like other states, very little attention was paid to tribal development in Himachal Pradesh. However, from the Fifth Five Year Plan onwards, a new strategy, i.e. tribal sub – plan approach was adopted. The basic purpose of this strategy was to have separate and identifiable physical and financial programmes for tribes and the tribal areas. The allocations so worked out in the tribal sub‐ plan were non‐ divertible to other areas.
For this purpose, the tribal areas were divided into two categories:
- The area having Higher than 50 per cent tribal population, and
- areas which have dispersed tribal population.
In the case of the former, and area specific development approach was adopted, whereas in case of the latter, a family based approach of development was considered suitable. In pursuance of this policy, all areas with mire than 50 per cent tribal population were placed under tribal sub‐ plan.
For each tribal sub‐division, the state government introduced the nucleus budget scheme. It was decided the nucleus budget so provided will be used only for contingency planning of the respective tribal sub‐ division, and the funds will be spent for such schemes as are of local importance and for which adequate normal and specific would generate flexibility and initiative for development work and remove some of the bottlenecks inherent in planning.
To further minimise the bottlenecks, single line administration approach was adopted. Every district officer posted in tribal areas was put under the direct control of the Deputy Commissioner. To ensure people’s participation, a Tribal Advisory Council was constituted in 1978, the recommendations of which were to be considered while formulating policies for tribal development. Not only this, the government also constituted Project Advisory Committees in all five tribal sub‐regions. This Committee, among others, comprises the members of Legislative Assembly, Members of Parliament of the concerned area, district heads of departments, progressive farmers, and representatives of entrepreneurs, local bodies and important institutions. The Deputy Commissioner is the Chairman of the Committee. The Committee is entrusted with the task of looking after both the formulation and implementation of the tribal sub‐plan.
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