CR Formula

C. Rajagopalachari’s formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress on independence of India from the British. C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for the Congress to offer the … Read more

August Offer (1940)

After the WWII began, British sought cooperation from India. August Offer offered three proposals. Firstly, it called for an immediate expansion of Viceroy’s Executive Council with the inclusion of India representatives; secondly, an advisory body with the members from British India and Indian princely states which were supposed to meet at consequent intervals was established … Read more

Civil Disobedience Movement and Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931

Started by Gandhi on 12th March 1930 with the Dandi March. Reached Dandi on April 6. Defiance of forest laws in Maharashtra, Central Province and Karnataka. Refusal to pay chaukidari tax in Eastern India. Wide participation of women Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan organized Khudai Khidmatgars (aka Red Shirts) Nagaland: Rani Gaidilieu First RTC, 1930 Congress … Read more

Simon Commission (1927)

Indian Statutory Commission chaired by Simon to go into the question of further constitutional reform All its seven members were Englishmen. Clement Attlee was one of the members. Lord Birkinhead was the secretary of state at that time At its Madras session in 1927 INC decided to boycott the commission “at every stage and in … Read more

Emergence of Socialism-

Emergence of socialism in the 1920s in the nationalist ranks JL Nehru and SC Bose Raised the question of internal class oppression by capitalists and landlords MN  Roy became the first Indian to be elected to the leadership of the Communist International Muzaffer Ahmed and SA Dange were tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case 1925: … Read more

Peasant Movements-

Three important peasant movements of the early twentieth century: Kisan Sabha and Eka movements in Avadh in UP Mappila rebellion in Malabar Bardoli Satyagrah in Gujarat The UP Kisan Sabha was set up in February 1918 through the efforts of Gauri Shankar Mishra and Indra Narain Dwivedi with the support of Madan Mohan Malviya. By … Read more

The Working Class Movements

There were some working class movements in second half of 19th century. However, they were impulsive and not very well organized. The early nationalists had a lukewarm attitude towards the question of workers. This war because initially Congress wanted to focus on issues which were of common concern to all the people of India. There … Read more

Non Co-operation and Khilafat Movement

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 1919: Dyarchy In a system called “dyarchy,” the nation-building departments of government — agriculture, education, public works, and the like — were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the “steel frame” of British rule — finance, revenue, and home affairs — were retained by … Read more

Gandhi’s early career and activism

Gandhi was the first Indian barrister to have come to South Africa. He was faced with various racial discriminations within days of his arrival in SA. He led the Indian struggle in SA. The first phase of Gandhi’s political activities from 1894-1906 may be classified as the ‘moderate’ phase. He set up the Natal Indian … Read more

Lucknow Pact (1916)

Nationalists saw that their disunity was affecting their cause Two important developments at the Lucknow Session of Congress The two wings of the Congress were again united The Congress and the Muslim League sank their old differences and put up common political demands before the government. INC and ML passed the same resolutions at their … Read more

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